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The IERI Research Community :: Projects

IERI: Integrating Speech and User Modeling in a Reading Tutor that Listens

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:
David J. Mostow

CO-INVESTIGATORS:
Albert Corbett, Joseph Beck, Mosur Ravishankar

CATEGORIES:
Reading

PROJECT OVERVIEW:
Background: An automated reading tutor that listens to children read aloud and gives appropriate feedback could provide a powerful, scalable tool to improve and assess their reading skills. Project LISTEN has worked to develop, evaluate, and refine such a tool under NSF support, including two successive IERI grants:

  • Classroom Use and Efficacy of an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens (October 1999 September 2003)
  • Integrating Speech and User Modeling in a Reading Tutor that Listens (September 2003 August 2007)

    Purpose: How can interactive systems model their users better by listening to them? Conversely, how can systems listen better by exploiting user models? This project investigates these questions in the context of a inter-disciplinary challenge problem: developing a computational student model of children's oral reading -- that is, a model of individual student knowledge, behavior, and learning that can guide a tutor. The work integrates and extends methods from speech technology, cognitive psychology, user modeling, and intelligent tutors.

    Intervention: This project draws on, contributes to, and tests and refines the scalability of an innovative, technology-enabled intervention and unique research platform developed with previous NSF support: an automated Reading Tutor that displays stories on a computer screen, uses a speech recognizer to listen to children read aloud, responds with spoken and graphical assistance, and helps them learn to read. Its ability to listen enables novel continuous assessments of students reading progress.

    Setting: Project LISTEN has analyzed data from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of hundreds of children (mostly grades 1-5) who used the Reading Tutor for a semester or school year in dozens of classes at elementary schools in several urban and suburban districts, mostly in the Pittsburgh area. Settings included classrooms, pull-out labs, whole-class labs, specialists offices or resource rooms, and summer reading clinics. In addition, researchers at other universities have tested the Reading Tutor with elementary school ESL students in the Chicago, Toronto, and Vancouver areas. We pilot-tested it in Ghana, Africa.

    Research Design: This project employs a variety of methodologies, including randomized controlled trial within-subject experiments embedded in the automated tutor, correlational, experimental, longitudinal, single-subject, statistical modeling, and videography. A variety of study samples, control and comparison conditions, and data collection and analytic methods are employed in this work; these are described in the abstracts of the project s published studies.

    Findings: The precursor "Classroom Use and Efficacy of an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens" project produced numerous key findings, detailed in publications available through the project website (at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen). For example, we found that even with barely 20 minutes of use per day, successive versions of the Reading Tutor have produced substantially higher comprehension gains than current practices in controlled studies lasting several months. To ensure that results were due to the Reading Tutor intervention, we compared different treatments within the same classrooms and randomized treatment assignment, stratifying by pretest scores within class. We used valid and reliable measures (Woodcock, 1998) to measure gains from pre- to post-test. We computed effect size as the difference in gains between the Reading Tutor and current practice, divided by the average standard deviation in gains of the two groups. Effect sizes for passage comprehension were substantial compared to other studies (NRP, 2000): 0.60 for 63 students in grades 2, 4, and 5 at a low-income urban school (Mostow & Aist, 2001; Mostow et al., 2003b); 0.48 for 66 third graders at a lower-middle class urban school (Aist et al., 2001; Mostow et al., 2001; Mostow et al., 2003a); and 0.66 for 52 first graders at two suburban Blue Ribbon Schools of Excellence (Mostow et al., 2002b; Mostow et al., under revision).

    The project Integrating Speech and User Modeling in a Reading Tutor that Listens is funded by NSF and is technologically oriented, with the goal of using speech recognition to model the student better, and vice versa. Initial and/or preliminary findings of key studies undertaken as part of this project include:

  • Intervention studies: We ve continued to run intervention studies comparing the Reading Tutor to various alternatives. A 2005-2006 crossover design study in a middle class suburban second grade compared the Reading Tutor to small-group instruction by a reading specialist. Half the students used the Reading Tutor in the fall and got small-group instruction in the spring; the other half vice versa. Based on preliminary analysis, the Reading Tutor outgained the control in word attack by a full grade level. For the other tested skills, gains were similar across treatments. We attribute the word attack result to a word building activity we added. To test this attribution, we plan to correlate students word attack gains against the portion of Reading Tutor time they spent in the word building activity.
    We used a similar study design in grades 3-5 at an urban school. The treatment effect for word attack was even higher. However, there were problems. Due to staffing problems, usage in grade 4 was too low to include in the study. There was such a high percentage of negative gains in the spring semester (in both treatment groups) that we do not trust the test results. Carnegie Mellon Robotics PhD Student Ayorkor Mills-Tettey pilot-tested the Reading Tutor in summer 2005 in her native Ghana (see http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen/photo.html).
  • Fluency: We used longitudinal analyses of individual word reading time in context to explore factors that affect speedup across successive encounters of a given word. The model we reported at SSSR2005 indicated that wide reading beats rereading. The model we'll report at SSSR2006 also incorporates recency, help, and proficiency. These correlational micro-analyses of fluency development estimate the apparent relative benefits of word encounters based on various contextual features. We plan to test these effects causally, and exploit them to accelerate fluency development.

  • Vocabulary: Our master's student Cecily Heiner adapted a vocabulary intervention published by Isabel Beck, and ran an embedded experiment that compared it to just encountering the word in context, with or without a quick explanation. A month-long pilot study at a 2005 summer reading clinic with a 1-week delayed posttest achieved statistically significant results despite small N, which we're trying to replicate in the 2005-2006 school year.

  • ESL: Three independent third party studies have now evaluated the Reading Tutor for ESL students, compared to various alternatives.
    Bob Poulsen's master's thesis (supervised by Peter Wiemer-Hastings) at DePaul did a two-month crossover study of 34 students in grade 2-4 at a Hispanic bilingual school, and reported that the Reading Tutor beat SSR by an effect size of 1.3: the students gained three times as much in fluency during the month they used the Reading Tutor for 25 minutes per day in a pullout 10-computer lab than during the month they spent the same time doing SSR in their classrooms.
    [Poulsen, R. (2004). Tutoring Bilingual Students With an Automated Reading Tutor That Listens: Results of a Two-Month Pilot Study. Unpublished Master's thesis, DePaul University, Chicago, IL.]
    Todd Cunningham's master's thesis (supervised by Esther Geva) at University of Toronto did a pretest-intervention-posttest study of 77 ESL students in grades 4-6 that compared the Reading Tutor, the Kurzweil 3000, and classroom ESL instruction. This study found gains but no significant differences between treatments on several language and literacy measures, but did not test fluency or report actual (as opposed to scheduled) treatment time.
    [Cunningham, T., & Geva, E. (2005, June 24). The effects of reading technologies on literacy development of ESL students [poster presentation]. Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Toronto.]
    [Cunningham, T. (2006). The Effect of Reading Remediation Software on the Language and Literacy Skill Development of ESL Students. Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.]
    Ken Reeder at UBC reports (in 5/26/2006 email) that his study is still ongoing with approximately 70 children ages 6 - 12, grade levels 2-7 at three Vancouver schools in low income, high ESL neighborhoods. The study focuses on the appropriateness of the Reading Tutor for ESL learners across a wide range of home language backgrounds and a wide range of initial English language proficiency levels. Dependent variables are gains on the main elements of the WRMT-Revised test and changes in attitudes toward reading and self-views as readers. The quasi-experimental study design calls for using the Reading Tutor 20 minutes per day for 6 months, with pre-test and post-test to measure reading gains, and clinical interviews to measure affective changes, with qualitative data analysis, coding and scoring of interview material. A small comparison group was pretested and interviewed but did not participate in the Reading Tutor for a range of reasons.
    [Chan, L. (2005, August 4). A Magic Reading Box: New literacy software delivers amazing results among Vancouver grade schoolers who speak English as a second language. UBC Reports, 51, http://www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/ubcreports/2005/2005aug2004/
    box.html
    ].
    [CTV (2006). Interview with Ken Reeder on the Vancouver Reading Tutor Project (3m28s). Used by permission, CTV News. Canada. Available at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen/mm.html.]
    [D'Silva, R., Hong, L., Lenters, K., Early, M., Kendrick, M., Reeder, K., Shapiro, J., & Wakefield, J. (2005, May). LISTENing to diverse learners: The effectiveness and appropriateness of a computer-based reading tutor for young multilingual learners [poster presentation]. Fifth Faculty of Education Research Day, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.]
    [Reeder, K., Early, M., Kendrick, M., Shapiro, J., D'Silva, R., Hong, L., Lau, K., Lenters, K., & Wakefield, J. (2004). Listening to Diverse Learners: The Effectiveness and Appropriateness of a Computer-based Reading Tutor for Young Canadian Language Learners (INTERIM REPORT, YEAR ONE). Vancouver, BC: Department of Language & Literacy Education, The University of British Columbia.]
    [Reeder, K., Early, M., Kendrick, M., Shapiro, J., & Wakefield, J. (2005, April). The Role of L1 in Young Multilingual Readers' Success With a Computer-Based Reading Tutor. Fifth International Symposium on Bilingualism, Barcelona, Spain.]
    Click [here] to see an excerpt from the Project Listen website Publications page (at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen/pubs.html) that covers findings to date from the two IERI grants and includes many of the studies summarized above.

    PROJECT PUBLICATIONS:
    Chang, K., Beck, J. E., Mostow, J., & Corbett, A. (2006, July 17). Does Help Help? A Bayes Net Approach to Modeling Tutor Interventions. AAAI2006 Workshop on Educational Data Mining, Boston, MA.

    Chang, K., Beck, J., Mostow, J., & Corbett, A. (2006, June 26-30). A Bayes Net Toolkit for Student Modeling in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Jhongli, Taiwan.

    Hensler, B. S., & Beck, J. (2006, June 26-30). Better student assessing by finding difficulty factors in a fully automated comprehension measure. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Jhongli, Taiwan.

    Heiner, C., Beck, J., & Mostow, J. (2006, June 26-30). Automated Vocabulary Instruction in a Reading Tutor. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Jhongli, Taiwan.

    Beck, J. (2006, June 26). Using learning decomposition to analyze student fluency development. ITS2006 Educational Data Mining Workshop, Jhongli, Taiwan.

    Mostow, J., & Beck, J. (in press). Some useful tactics to modify, map, and mine data from intelligent tutors. Natural Language Engineering. Special Issue on Educational Applications.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Cen, H., Gouvea, E., & Heiner, C. (2005, July). Interactive Demonstration of a Generic Tool to Browse Tutor-Student Interactions. Interactive Events Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2005), Amsterdam, 29-32. Click here for .pdf file.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Cuneo, A., Gouvea, E., & Heiner, C. (2005, July 18-22). A Generic Tool to Browse Tutor-Student Interactions: Time Will Tell! Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2005), Amsterdam, 884-886. Click here for .pdf file.

    Heiner, C., Beck, J., & Mostow, J. (2005, July 18-22). When do students interrupt help? Effects of individual differences. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2005), Amsterdam, 819-826. Note: This paper was accepted as a poster, but due to a publishing error, the printed proceedings include the original submitted version instead of the 3-page revised version. Click here for 3-page accepted version.. Click here for 8-page published version.

    Beck, J. (2005, July 18-22). Engagement tracing: using response times to model student disengagement. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2005), Amsterdam, 88-95. Click here for .pdf file.

    Beck, J. E., Chang, K., Mostow, J., & Corbett, A. (2005, July 19). Using a student model to improve a computer tutor's speech recognition. Proceedings of the AIED 05 Workshop on Student Modeling for Language Tutors, 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Amsterdam, 2-11. Click here for .pdf file.

    Chang, K.., Beck, J. E., Mostow, J., & Corbett, A. (2005, July 19). Using speech recognition to evaluate two student models for a reading tutor. Proceedings of the AIED 05 Workshop on Student Modeling for Language Tutors, 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Amsterdam, 12-21. Click here for .pdf file.

    Beck, J. (Ed.). (2005, July 10). Proceedings of the AAAI2005 Workshop on Educational Data Mining. Pittsburgh, PA.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Cen, H., Cuneo, A., Gouvea, E., & Heiner, C. (2005, July 10). An Educational Data Mining Tool to Browse Tutor-Student Interactions: Time Will Tell! Proceedings of the Workshop on Educational Data Mining, National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pittsburgh, 15-22. Click here for .pdf file.

    Arnold, A., Scheines, R., Beck, J. E., & Jerome, B. (2005, July 10). Time and attention: students, sessions, and tasks. Proceedings of the AAAI2005 Workshop on Educational Data Mining, Pittsburgh, PA, 62-66. Click here for .pdf file.

    Mostow, J., & Beck, J. (2005). Micro-analysis of fluency gains in a Reading Tutor that listens: Wide vs. repeated guided oral reading. Talk at Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading. Toronto. Click here to download PowerPoint presentation.

    Cunningham, T., & Geva, E. (2005, June 24). The effects of reading technologies on literacy development of ESL students [poster presentation]. Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Toronto.

    Reeder, K., Early, M., Kendrick, M., Shapiro, J., & Wakefield, J. (2005, April). The Role of L1 in Young Multilingual Readers' Success With a Computer-Based Reading Tutor. Fifth International Symposium on Bilingualism, Barcelona, Spain.

    Beck, J. E., & Mostow, J. (2005). Mining Data from Randomized Within-Subject Experiments in an Automated Reading Tutor (poster in session 34.080, "Logging Students' Learning in Complex Domains: Empirical Considerations and Technological Solutions"). American Educational Research Association 2005 Annual Meeting: Demography and Democracy in the Era of Accountability, Montreal, Canada. Click here to download PowerPoint poster.

    Kant, P. M. (2004). The Influence of Teachers' Perceptions on Usage of an Educational Technology: A study of Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

    Poulsen, R. (2004). Tutoring Bilingual Students With an Automated Reading Tutor That Listens: Results of a Two-Month Pilot Study. Unpublished Masters Thesis, DePaul University, Chicago, IL. Click here to download .pdf file.

    Mostow, J., & Beck, J. (in press). When the Rubber Meets the Road: Lessons from the In-School Adventures of an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. In B. Schneider & S. McDonald (Eds.), Scale-Up in Education, Vol. 2: Practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Bey, J., Cuneo, A., Sison, J., Tobin, B., & Valeri, J. (2004). Using automated questions to assess reading comprehension, vocabulary, and effects of tutorial interventions. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 2, 97-134. Click here to download .pdf file.

    Beck, J. E., Jia, P., & Mostow, J. (2004). Automatically assessing oral reading fluency in a computer tutor that listens. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 2, 61-81. Click here to download .pdf file.

    Beck, J. E., & Sison, J. (2004, September 1-3). Using knowledge tracing to measure student reading proficiencies. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceio, Brazil. (c) Springer-Verlag. Click here to download .pdf file.

    Beck, J. E., Mostow, J., & Bey, J. (2004, September 1-3). Can automated questions scaffold children's reading comprehension? Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceio, Brazil. (c) Springer-Verlag. Click here to download .pdf file.? http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen/pdfs/3w%20crc.pdf

    Beck, J. E. (2004, August 31). Using response times to model student disengagement. Proceedings of the ITS2004 Workshop on Social and Emotional Intelligence in Learning Environments, Maceio, Brazil, 13-20. Click here to download .pdf file.? http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen/pdfs/affect%20crc.pdf

    Mostow, J. (2004, August 30). Some useful design tactics for mining ITS data. Proceedings of the ITS2004 Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes, Macei , Alagoas, Brazil, 20-28. Click here to download .pdf file. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen/pdfs/final%20ITS%20data%20mining%20tactics.pdf Click here to download Powerpoint presentation.

    Heiner, C., Beck, J., & Mostow, J. (2004, August 30). Lessons on using ITS data to answer educational research questions. Proceedings of the ITS2004 Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes, Maceio, Brazil, 1-9. Click here to download .pdf file.

    Mostow, J. (2004, July 22). If I Have a Hammer: Computational Linguistics in a Reading Tutor that Listens [Invited keynote address]. 42nd Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics (ACL-EACL 2004), Barcelona, Spain. Click here to download Powerpoint presentation.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J. E., & Heiner, C. (2004). Which Help Helps? Effects of Various Types of Help on Word Learning in an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Click here to download Powerpoint presentation.

    Beck, J. E., Sison, J., & Mostow, J. (2004, June 27-30). Using automated speech recognition to measure scaffolding and learning effects of word identification interventions in a computer tutor that listens. Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Click here to download Powerpoint poster.

    Heiner, C., Beck, J. E., & Mostow, J. (2004, June 17-19). Improving the Help Selection Policy in a Reading Tutor that Listens. Proceedings of the InSTIL/ICALL Symposium on NLP and Speech Technologies in Advanced Language Learning Systems, Venice, Italy, 195-198. Click here to download .pdf file.

    Beck, J. E., & Sison, J. (2004, June 8-12). Automated student assessment in language tutors. CALICO, Pittsburgh, PA.

    Mostow, J. (to appear). Evaluation purposes, excuses, and methods: Experience from a Reading Tutor that listens. In C. K. Kinzer & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Interactive Literacy Education: Facilitating Literacy Environments Through Technology. Mahway, NJ: Erlbaum Publishers.

    Murray, R. C., VanLehn, K., & Mostow, J. (2004). Looking Ahead to Select Tutorial Actions: A Decision-Theoretic Approach. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 14, 235-278. Download paper as .pdf file.

    Banerjee, S., Mostow, J., Beck, J., & Tam, W. (2003, December 15-16). Improving Language Models by Learning from Speech Recognition Errors in a Reading Tutor that Listens. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Applied Artificial Intelligence, Fort Panhala, Kolhapur, India. Download paper as .pdf file.

    Mostow, J., & Beck, J. (2003, November 3-4). When the Rubber Meets the Road: Lessons from the In-School Adventures of an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Conceptualizing Scale-Up: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Park Hyatt Hotel, Washington, D.C.

    Banerjee, S., Beck, J., & Mostow, J. (2003, September 1-4). Evaluating the Effect of Predicting Oral Reading Miscues. Proc. 8th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 2003), Geneva, Switzerland, 3165-3168. Download paper in .pdf format.

    Tam, Y.-C., Mostow, J., Beck, J., & Banerjee, S. (2003, September 1-4). Training a Confidence Measure for a Reading Tutor that Listens. Proc. 8th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 2003), Geneva, Switzerland, 3161-3164. Download paper in Postscript format.

    Beck, J. E., Mostow, J., Cuneo, A., & Bey, J. (2003, July 20-24). Can automated questioning help children's reading comprehension? Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2003), Sydney, Australia. Download paper in pdf format.

    Mostow, J., & Beck, J. E. (2003, July 20-24). Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor: Interactive Event Description. Supplemental Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2003), Sydney, Australia. Download paper in pdf format.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J. E., & Valeri, J. (2003, June 22). Can Automated Emotional Scaffolding Affect Student Persistence? A Baseline Experiment. Workshop on "Assessing and Adapting to User Attitudes and Affect: Why, When and How?" at the 9th International Conference on User Modeling (UM'03), Johnstown, PA. Download paper in pdf format.

    Beck, J. E., Jia, P., Sison, J., & Mostow, J. (2003, June 22-26). Predicting student help-request behavior in an intelligent tutor for reading. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on User Modeling, Johnstown, PA. Download paper in pdf format.

    Beck, J. E., Jia, P., & Mostow, J. (2003, June 22-26). Assessing student proficiency in a Reading Tutor that listens. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on User Modeling, Johnstown, PA. Download paper in pdf format.

    Mostow, J., Aist, G., Burkhead, P., Corbett, A., Cuneo, A., Eitelman, S., Huang, C., Junker, B., Sklar, M. B., & Tobin, B. (2003). Evaluation of an automated Reading Tutor that listens: Comparison to human tutoring and classroom instruction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(1), 61-117. Download paper in MS Word .doc format. HT-RT-classroom evaluation.doc

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Bey, J., Cuneo, A., Sison, J., & Tobin, B. (2003, June 12-15). An Embedded Experiment to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Previews in an Automated Reading Tutor. Talk presented at Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Scientific Studies of Reading, Boulder, CO. Download Powerpoint presentation.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Chalasani, R., Cuneo, A., & Jia, P. (2002, October 14-16). Viewing and Analyzing Multimodal Human-computer Tutorial Dialogue: A Database Approach. Fourth IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI 2002), Pittsburgh, PA. Revised version of paper first presented at ITS 2002 Workshop on Empirical Methods for Tutorial Dialogue Systems, San Sebastian, Spain. Download paper in pdf format.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Winter, S. V., Wang, S., & Tobin, B. (2002, September 16-20). Predicting oral reading miscues. Seventh International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP-02), Denver, CO. Download paper in pdf format.

    Aist, G. (2002). Helping Children Learn Vocabulary During Computer-Assisted Oral Reading. Educational Technology and Society, 5(2). On-line at http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_2_2002/aist.html.

    Mostow, J., Aist, G., Bey, J., Burkhead, P., Cuneo, A., Junker, B., Rossbach, S., Tobin, B., Valeri, J., & Wilson, S. (2002, June 27-30). Independent practice versus computer-guided oral reading: Equal-time comparison of sustained silent reading to an automated reading tutor that listens. Ninth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Chicago, Illinois. Download paper in pdf format. Download Powerpoint presentation.

    Mostow, J., Aist, G., Beck, J., Chalasani, R., Cuneo, A., Jia, P., & Kadaru, K. (2002, June 5-7). A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , or As Time Goes By: Where does the time go in a Reading Tutor that listens? Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS'2002), Biarritz, France. Download paper in pdf format. (c) Springer-Verlag.

    Beck, J. E. (2002). Directing Development Effort with Simulated Students. Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS'2002), Biarritz, France. Download paper in pdf format. (c) Springer-Verlag.

    Aist, G., Kort, B., Reilly, R., Mostow, J., & Picard, R. (2002, June 5-7). Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens Increases Student Persistence [Poster]. Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS'2002), Biarritz, France, 992. Download paper in pdf format. (c) Springer-Verlag.

    Aist, G., Kort, B., Reilly, R., Mostow, J., & Picard, R. (2002, June 4). Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capabilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. ITS 2002 Workshop on Empirical Methods for Tutorial Dialogue Systems, San Sebastian, Spain. Download paper in pdf format.

    Mostow, J., Beck, J., Chalasani, R., Cuneo, A., & Jia, P. (2002, June 4). Viewing and Analyzing Multimodal Human-computer Tutorial Dialogue: A Database Approach. ITS 2002 Workshop on Empirical Methods for Tutorial Dialogue Systems, San Sebastian, Spain. Download paper in .doc format. Download paper in pdf format.

    Mostow, J., Tobin, B., & Cuneo, A. (2002, June 3). Automated Comprehension Assessment in a Reading Tutor. ITS 2002 Workshop on Creating Valid Diagnostic Assessments, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 52-63. Download paper in pdf format.

    Jia, P., Beck, J. E., & Mostow, J. (2002, June 3). Can a Reading Tutor that Listens use Inter-word Latency to Assess a Student's Reading Ability? ITS 2002 Workshop on Creating Valid Diagnostic Assessments, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 23-32. Download paper in pdf format.

    Aist, G. (2002, April 29). Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading: A Dissertation Summary [Poster presented as a Distinguished Finalist for the Outstanding Dissertation of the Year Award]. 47th Annual Convention of the International Reading Association, San Francisco, CA.

    Aist, G. Towards automatic glossarization: automatically constructing and administering vocabulary assistance factoids and multiple-choice assessment. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (2001) 12, 212-231. Download from IJAIE website.
    Mostow, J., and Aist, G. Evaluating tutors that listen: An overview of Project LISTEN. In (K. Forbus and P. Feltovich, Eds.) Smart Machines in Education, pp. 169-234. MIT/AAAI Press, 2001.

    Aist, G. Towards Worldwide Literacy: Technological Affordances, Economic Challenges, Affordable Technology. Development by Design: Workshop on Collaborative Open Source Design of Appropriate Technologies. MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 22, 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    Jack Mostow, Greg Aist, Juliet Bey, Paul Burkhead, Andrew Cuneo, Susan Rossbach, Brian Tobin, Joe Valeri, and Sara Wilson. A hands-on demonstration of Project LISTEN s Reading Tutor and its embedded experiments. Refereed demo presented at Language Technologies 2001: The Second Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    Murray, R. Charles, Van Lehn, Kurt, and Mostow, Jack. A Decision-Theoretic Approach for Selecting Tutorial Discourse Actions. In Proceedings of the NAACL 2001 Workshop on Adaptation in Dialogue Systems, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    Murray, R. Charles, Van Lehn, Kurt, and Mostow, Jack. A Decision-Theoretic Architecture for Selecting Tutorial Discourse Actions. In Proceedings of the AIED-2001 Workshop on Tutorial Dialog Systems, San Antonio, Texas, May 2001, pp. 35-46. Download paper in pdf format.

    Aist, Gregory S. and Mostow, Jack. Faster, better task choice in a reading tutor that listens. To appear in V. M. Holland & F. N. Fisher (Eds.), Speech Technology for Language Learning. The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers (in press).

    Jack Mostow, Gregory S. Aist, Cathy Huang, Brian Junker, Rebecca Kennedy, Hua Lan, DeWitt Latimer IV, Rollanda O'Connor, Regina Tassone, Brian Tobin, and Adam Wierman. 4-Month Evaluation of a Learner-controlled Reading Tutor that Listens. To appear in V. M. Holland & F. N. Fisher (Eds.), Speech Technology for Language Learning. The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers (in press).

    Mostow, J., Aist, G. S., Burkhead, P., Corbett, A., Cuneo, A., Eitelman, S., Huang, C., Junker, B., Platz, C., Sklar, M. B., and Tobin, B. A controlled evaluation of computer- versus human-assisted oral reading. In J. D. Moore, C. L. Redfield, and W. L. Johnson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: AI-ED in the Wired and Wireless Future, pp. 586-588. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Presented at the Tenth Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED) Conference, San Antonio, Texas, May 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    Jack Mostow, Cathy Huang, and Brian Tobin. Pause the Video: Quick but quantitative expert evaluation of tutorial choices in a Reading Tutor that listens. In J. D. Moore, C. L. Redfield, and W. L. Johnson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: AI-ED in the Wired and Wireless Future, pp. 343-353. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Presented at the Tenth Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED) Conference,San Antonio, Texas, May 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    James Fogarty, Laura Dabbish, David Steck, and Jack Mostow. Mining a database of reading mistakes: For what should an automated Reading Tutor listen? In J. D. Moore, C. L. Redfield, and W. L. Johnson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: AI-ED in the Wired and Wireless Future, pp. 422-433. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Presented at the Tenth Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED) Conference,San Antonio, Texas, May 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    Aist, G. S., Mostow, J., Tobin, B., Burkhead, P., Corbett, A., Cuneo, A., Junker, B., and Sklar, M. B. Computer-assisted oral reading helps third graders learn vocabulary better than a classroom control about as well as one-on-one human-assisted oral reading. In J. D. Moore, C. L. Redfield, and W. L. Johnson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: AI-ED in the Wired and Wireless Future, pp. 267-277. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Presented at the Tenth Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED) Conference,San Antonio, Texas, May 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    Gregory S. Aist. Factoids: Automatically constructing and administering vocabulary assistance and assessment. In J. D. Moore, C. L. Redfield, and W. L. Johnson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: AI-ED in the Wired and Wireless Future, pp. 234-245. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Presented at the Tenth Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED) Conference, San Antonio, Texas, May 2001. Download paper in pdf format.

    Aist, G. 2001. Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading. Ph.D. dissertation, Language Technologies Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University. Download thesis in pdf format.

    Aist, G. Identifying words to explain to a reader: A preliminary study. Student Abstract and Poster, Proceedings of the Seventeenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-2000), p. 1061. Austin, TX, August 2000. Download paper in pdf format.

    Aist, G. Helping children learn vocabulary during computer assisted oral reading. SIGART/AAAI Doctoral Consortium, Proceedings of the Seventeenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-2000), pp. 1100-1101. Austin, TX, July 2000. Download .ps file.

    Aist, G. An informal model of vocabulary acquisition during assisted oral reading and some implications for computerized instruction. In R. Nkambou (Ed.), ITS'2000 Young Researchers Track Proceedings, pp. 22-24. Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Montreal, Canada, June 2000. Download paper in pdf format. (c) Springer-Verlag.

    Aist, G. and Mostow, J. Improving story choice in a reading tutor that listens. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS 2000), p. 645. Montreal, Canada, June 2000. Poster Abstract. Download paper in pdf format. (c) Springer-Verlag.

    Aist, G. Human Tutor and Computer Tutor Story Choice in Listening to Children Read Aloud. In B. du Boulay (Ed.), Proceedings of the ITS'2000 Workshop on Modeling Human Teaching Tactics and Strategies, pp. 8-10. Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Montreal, Canada, June 2000. Download paper in pdf format.

    Aist, G. and Mostow, J. Using Automated Within-Subject Invisible Experiments to Test the Effectiveness of Automated Vocabulary Assistance. In Joseph Beck (Ed.), Proceedings of ITS'2000 Workshop on Applying Machine Learning to ITS Design/Construction, pp. 4-8. Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Montreal, Canada, June 2000. Download paper in pdf format.

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