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The IERI Research Community :: Projects

Early Development of Reading Skills: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:
Jack Fletcher

CO-INVESTIGATORS:
Patricia A. Mathes, Barbara R. Foorman, Carolyn Denton, Andrew C. Papanicolaou

CATEGORIES:
Reading

PROJECT OVERVIEW:
Background: This project supported four studies involving preventative and remedial intervention, brain imaging, and text decodability in a group of first graders identified as "at risk" for reading difficulties. The 4 studies addressed several educational problems, including early development of reading skills, early identification/intervention for the prevention and remediation of reading difficulties, the efficacy of literacy tutorial programs, how the brain mediates instruction, and how the text characteristics of instructional materials influence outcomes.

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop an interdisciplinary approach to large-scale educational interventions that provides for the integration of research and education around issues involving the development of beginning reading skills. The specific objectives of the studies were:

  1. To develop an interdisciplinary team composed of scientists from diverse perspectives to partner with a large, suburban school district in developing interdisciplinary approaches to large-scale educational interventions.
  2. To implement a large-scale intervention involving first graders at-risk for reading problems that includes: a) early identification; b) a controlled study of the efficacy of the intervention; and c) a remedial intervention for inadequate responders to the preventative interventions.
  3. To use magnetoencephaolography to obtain brain activation profiles on a subset of children in the intervention study to evaluate: a) functional neural changes that occur in the brain as children in Grade 1 learn to read; and b) functional neural responses to preventative and remedial interventions.
  1. To evaluate the influence of text decodeability on student outcomes and subsequent learning in relation to lexical and text characteristics as they interact with instructional variables.

    Intervention: Two pullout interventions were provided daily for 40 minutes in groups of 3 students. Teachers provided either (1) a structured approach to instruction that integrated decoding, using the alphabetic principle, fluency, and comprehension strategies using decodable text and following a predetermined scope and sequence (Proactive); or (2) an approach that guided children to integrate decoding using the alphabetic principle, fluency, and comprehension strategies through contextual experiences with authentic text (Responsive). All classroom teachers received professional development through the District, progress monitoring, and consultation on individual children. Children who did not respond adequately in Grade 1 received an intense 16 week remedial intervention.

    Setting: The four studies included elementary students in six schools in a large urban school district in Houston. The project began in 2001 and ended in 2005.

    Research Design: For Project 1 (Early Intervention), 308 Grade 1 children were identified as "at-risk" for reading difficulties, along with 101 "not at-risk" children. The screening was based on the Texas primary Reading Inventory (TPRI) supplemented with simple measures of word and text reading to eliminate students who were misidentified as struggling readers by the TPRI. Within each school, the at-risk children were randomly assigned to one of 3 interventions. For Project 2 (Neuroimaging), children whose families volunteered for to come to the neuroimaging laboratory were imaged before (n = 45) and after first grade instruction (n = 33). Project 3 (Text Decodability) completed analyses of basal texts used by the students using computer programs designed to analyze text characteristics, evaluated computer simulations of reading instruction, and evaluated textual influences on reading acquisition in the project 1 sample. In the last year, Project 4 (Intense Intervention) provided a 16 week intense reading intervention to 27 students who had not responded adequately to the initial interventions and also imaged 15 of these students at different phases of intervention.

    All children received longitudinal assessments of growth in reading and reading-related skills, yearly norm-referenced achievement measures, and assessment of behaviour and the home/school environment. Project 2 explored neural changes representing reading development using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate a) functional neural changes that occur as reading develops; and b) changes in the neural representation of reading skills as an indicator of response to intervention.. Project 3 used both archival data and collected monthly prospective data involving pre-constructed textual material on the entire sample. Data was analyzed using multi-level modeling of instructional outcomes and ANOVA/correlational models for the imaging data.

    Findings:
    • Intervention results. In a series of intervention studies (Denton et al., in press; Mathes et al., 2005), we have successfully implemented three tiers of a multi-phase Grade 1 intervention that provides increasingly intense interventions to students identified as at-risk for reading problems. The first two tiers (Mathes et al., 2005) represent enhanced classroom instruction and small group supplemental instruction, modeling efforts currently implemented in the federally sponsored Reading First program. The results indicated that enhanced classroom instruction alone reduced the number of at-risk students from 20% of the school population as indicated on the TPRI to 3%, attesting to the quality of the district's professional development program and emphasis on reading. Adding small group supplemental instruction reduced these numbers to less than 1.5%. Standardized test scores were consistently in the average range.
The third tier modeled efforts that would be linked to Reading First through special education, focusing on highly intense interventions for students who do not respond to quality intervention in general education. This study utilized a 16-week intervention with 27 inadequate responders to instruction that was effective with most students (Denton et al., in press). The results showed that about half of these difficult-to-teach students responded adequately, with average effect sizes in the moderate to large range on measures of fluency, decoding, and comprehension. This was the first tertiary intervention study specifically targeting nonresponders and showed that these types of intense interventions- up to 2 hours of reading intervention per day over an 8 week period- can be implemented in schools. The results also model the types of tertiary interventions intended as states scale up the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) passed by Congress this past session.

  • Neuroimaging. In a series of brain imaging studies specifically linked to interventions (Simos et al., 2002; in press a, b; 2004), we showed that effective reading interventions alter aberrant brain mechanisms in children with identified reading disabilities and those at-risk for reading problems. We identified a neural network that must be in place in order to mediate word recognition skills. The aberrant brain activation patterns identified in children who are at-risk for reading disability parallel those associated with identified reading disability in older children and adults. When intervention is successful, these brain activation profiles are primarily normalized. The results suggest that the brain is more malleable to environmental influences than is often expected, thus potentially altering conceptions of students with learning disabilities suggesting that such problems are constitutional limitations unresponsive to the environment.

  • Characteristics of basal readers. Computer programs have been written that characterize the words in basal reading materials along multiple dimensions. The data from these analyses show that basal reading curricula commonly used in public schools differ significantly along multiple dimensions (Foorman et al., 2003). Most pertinent is the finding that these curricula differ significantly in the number of new words presented to the learner and whether children have been taught the relevant letter-sound correspondences at the point at which these words are introduced. Studies of the relevance of context to word acquisition suggest that low skill level readers read unpredictable words better in isolation than in context. This suggests that context may interfere with reading when decoding skills are less fluent.

  • Simulated models. We completed connectionist modeling studies of the learning to read process by feeding the first-grade text from basal readers into computer programs. We found that some basal reading programs more effectively simulate the learning to read process than others. These results may provide specific guidance for the construction of basal texts required in Reading First programs.

  • Reading development. In a series of prospective studies involving the intervention sample in Mathes et al. (2005), we evaluate the hypothesis that when highly predictable but relatively unfamiliar words are read, the child is less likely to learn the word than when it is less predictable (Bolger et al., 2004). This hypothesis was supported. When young readers are challenged with more difficult word items, they rely on decoding skills in order to identify unknown words. As reading skill increases both attention to orthographic form and lexical knowledge are used in the identification of words. These results also have implications for the construction of reading materials and for instruction.

  • Reading interventions. We have developed two complete small group pullout interventions for at-risk first graders (Denton & Hocker, 2006; Mathes & Torgesen, 2006). These interventions are clearly implementable within the context of large urban public schools. We have successfully trained teachers in the implementation of these programs. We have also shown that both of these two philosophically different programs have efficacy. Both programs will be published in the next year and are ideal for implementation in Reading First programs.

  • Dissemination. The results of these studies have been directly presented to over 50 school districts across the country, a large number of administrator and itinerant professional conferences, and at professional meetings oriented to research. In addition, about 30 publications have been produced. The study is clearly interdisciplinary, bridging different areas of education, reading pedagogy, cognitive development, and cognitive neuroscience. Specific components were presented at a congressional hearing in 2003 involving the reauthorization of IDEA that resulted in a press release.

PROJECT PUBLICATIONS:
Publications
Billingsley, R.L, Simos, P.G., Castillo, E.M., Sarkari, S., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2004). Reliability and validity of functional neuroimaging techniques for identifying language-critical areas in children and adults. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 541-63.

Bolger, D.J., Van Dyke, J., Landi, N., & Perfetti, C.A, & Foorman, B.R. (under review). The role of orthographic knowledge in children's printed word acquisition and reading skill.

Breier, JI, Simos, PG, Fletcher, JM, Castillo, EM, Zhang, W, & Papanicolaou, AC. Abnormal activation of temporoparietal areas in children with dyslexia during speech processing, Neuropsychology, 17, 610-21, 2003.

Breier, J.I., Fletcher, J.M., Denton, C., & Gray, L.C. (2004). Categorical perception of speech stimuli in children at-risk for reading difficulty. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88, 152-170.

Denton, C.A., & Hocker, J.K. (2006). Responsive reading instruction: Flexible intervention for struggling readers in the early grades. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Denton, C.A., & Mathes, P.G. (2003). Intervention for struggling readers: Possibilities and challenges. In B.R. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: Bringing science to scale (pp. 229-251). Timonium, MD: York Press.

Denton, C.A., & Fletcher, J.M. (2004). Scaling reading interventions. In B. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: Bringing science to scale (pp. 445-464). Timonium, MD: York Press.

Denton, C.A., Ciancio, D., & Fletcher, J.M. (2006). Validity, reliability, and utility of the Observation Survey of early literacy achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 8-34.

Denton, C.A., Fletcher, J.M., Anthony, J.L., & Francis, D.J. (in press). An evaluation of intensive intervention for students with persistent reading difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities.

Denton, C.A., Fletcher, J. M., Simos, P.C., Papanicolaou, A.C. & Anthony, J.L. (in press). An implementation of a tiered intervention model: Reading outcomes and neural correlates. In D. Haager, S.Vaughn, & J.K. Klingner (Eds.), Validated reading practices for three tiers of intervention. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes

Denton, C.A., Vaughn, S., & Fletcher, J.M. (2003). Bringing research-based practice to scale. Learning Disability Research and Practice, 15, 74-94.

Grek, M.L. Mathes, P.G., & Torgesen, J.K. (2003). Similarities and differences between experienced teachers and trained paraprofessionals: An Observational Analysis. In S.Vaughn & K. Briggs (Eds.) Reading in the classroom (267-296). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Fletcher, J.M., Denton, C.A., & Francis, D.J. (2005). Validity of alternative approaches for the identification of learning disability: Operationalizing unexpected underachievement. Journal of Learning Disability, 38, 545-552.

Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R, Boudousquie, A., Barnes, M., Schatschneider. C., & Francis, D.J. (2002). Assessment of reading and learning disabilities: A research-based, intervention-oriented approach. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 27- 63.

Fletcher, J.M., Morris, R.D., & Lyon, G.R. (2003). Classification and definition of learning disabilities: An integrative perspective. In H.L. Swanson, K.R. Harris, and S. Graham. Handbook of learning disabilities (pp. 30-56). Guilford Publications.

Fletcher, J.M., Simos, P.G., Papanicolaou, A.C., & Denton, C. (2004). Neuroimaging in reading research. In N. Duke & M. Mallette (eds.). Literacy research methods (pp. 252-286). New York: Guilford.

Foorman, B.R., Breier, J.I., & Fletcher, J.M. (2003). Interventions aimed at improving reading success: An evidence-based approach. Developmental Neuropsychology, 24, 613-639.

Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Davidson, K., Harm, M., & Griffin, J. (2004). Variability in text features in six grade 1 basal reading programs. Scientific Studies in Reading, 8, 167-197.

Landi, N., Perfetti, C.A., Bolger, D.J., & Foorman, B.R. (in press). The role of discourse context in developing word representations: A paradoxical relationship between reading and learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Lyon, G.R., Fletcher, J.M., Fuchs, L., & Chhabra, V. (2006). Treatment of learning disabilities. In E. Mash & R. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disabilities (2nd Ed., pp. 512-591). New York: Guilford.

Mathes, P. G., & Denton, C.A. (2002). The prevention and identification of reading disability. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 9, 185-191.

Mathes, P.G., Denton, C.A., Fletcher, J.M., Anthony, J.L., Francis, D.J., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). An evaluation of two reading interventions derived from diverse models. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 148- 182.

Mathes, P.G., & Torgesen J.K. (2005). Early interventions in reading. Columbus OH: SRA.

Papanicolaou, A.C., Pugh, K.C., Simos, P.G., & Mencl, W.E. (2004). Functional brain imaging: An introduction to concepts and applications. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.) The voice of evidence: Bringing research to classroom educators.

Papanicolaou, A.C. Simos, P.G. Breier, J.I., Wheless, J.W., Mancias, P., Baumgartner, J.E., Maggio, W.W. Gormley, W., Constantinou, J.E.C. & Butler, I.J. (2001). Brain plasticity for sensory and linguistic functions: A functional imaging study using MEG with children and young adults. Journal of Child Neurology, 16, 241-252.

Papanicolaou, A.C., Simos, P.G., Breier, J.I., Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Castillo, E.M., & Davis, R. (2003). Brain mechanisms for reading in children with and without dyslexia: A review of studies of normal development and plasticity. Developmental Neuropsychology, 24, 593- 612.

Papanicolaou, A.C., Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Francis, D.J., Foorman, B.R., Castillo, E.M., & Sarkari, S. (2004). Early development and plasticity of neurophysiological processes involved in reading. In B. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: Bringing science to scale (pp. 3-72). Timonium, MD: York Press.

Sarkari, S., Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Castillo, E.M., Breier, J.I., & Papanicolaou, A.C. Contributions of magnetic source imaging to the understanding of dyslexia. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 9, 227-236, 2002.

Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Sarkari, S., Billingsley, R.L., Denton, C., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (under review). Altering the brain circuit for reading through intervention: A magnetic source imaging study.

Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Sarkari, S., Billingsley, R.L., Denton, C., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2006). Intensive reading instruction: Reading outcomes parallel changes in the intrinsic organization of the brain circuit for reading. In G. D. Sideridis & T. A. Citro (Eds.). Best practices in learning disabilities: Bridging the gap between research and practice. Boston, MA: LDW.

Simos, P.G., Breier, J.I., Fletcher, J.M., Bergman, E., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2000). Cerebral mechanisms involved in word reading in dyslexic children: A magnetic source imaging approach. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 809-816.

Simos, P.G., Breier, J.I., Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R., Bergman, E., Fishbeck, K., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2000). Brain activation profiles in dyslexic children during nonword reading: A magnetic source imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 290, 61-65.

Simos, P.G., Breier, J.I., Fletcher, J.M., Wheless, J.W., Maggio, W.W. Gormley, W., Constantinou, J.C., & Kramer, L. (2000). Insights into brain function and neural plasticity using Magnetic Source Imaging. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 17, 143-162.

Simos, P.G., Breier, J.I., Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M., Mouzaki, A., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2001). Age-related changes in regional brain activation during phonological decoding and printed word recognition. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19, 191-210.

Simos, P.G., Breier, J.I., Wheless, J.W., Maggio, W.W., Fletcher, J.M., Castillo, E.M. & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2000). Brain mechanisms for reading: The role of the superior temporal gyrus in word and pseudoword naming. Neuroreport, 11, 2443-2447.

Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Bergman, E., Breier, J.I., Foorman, B.R., Castillo, E.M., Davis, R.N., Fitzgerald, M., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2002). Dyslexia-specific brain activation profile becomes normal following successful remedial training. Neurology, 58, 1-10.

Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R. Francis, D.J. Castillo, E.M. Davis, R.N. Fitzgerald, M. Mathes, P.G. Denton, C. & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2002). Brain activation profiles during the early stages of reading acquisition. Journal of Child Neurology, 17, 159-163.

Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Sarkari, S., Billingsley, R.L., Francis, D.J., Castillo, E.M., Pataraia, E., Denton, C., & Papanicolaou (2005). Early development of neurophysiological processes involved in normal reading and reading disability. Neuropsychology, 19, 787-798.

Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Sarkari, S., Billingsley-Marshall, R., Denton, C., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (in press). Magnetic source imaging studies of dyslexia interventions. Developmental Neuropsychology.

Simos, P.G., Fletcher, J.M., Sarkari, S., Billingsley-Marshall, R., Denton, C., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (in press). Intensive instruction affects brain magnetic activity associated with reading fluency in children with persistent reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities.

Presentations
Anthony, J., Foorman, B., Francis, D., Griffin, J., Perfetti, C., & Fletcher, J. (April 27, 2003). The effects of context and repetition on word decidability and reading strategy usage. Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) in Tampa, FL.

Bolger, D.J., Van Dyke, J., Perfetti, C.A., & Foorman, B. R. (June, 2001). Decoding skill and orthographic knowledge, perfect together. Poster presentation at the 8th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading.

Bolger, D.J., Van Dyke, J., Landi, N., Perfetti, C.A., & Foorman, B. R. (June, 2002). What errors can tell us about representation and process: Investigating a quantitative theory of reading. Poster presentation at the 9th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Chicago, IL.

Denton, C.A. (October, 2003). High intensity intervention for students with severe reading difficulties, In R. Lyon (Chair), Current Findings from the NICHD and IERI Reading Research Programs, Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Council for Learning Disabilities, Seattle.

Denton, C.A., & Anthony, J.L. (February, 2004). Intensive reading intervention for "treatment resistors" and students with severe reading difficulties. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Denton, C.A. & Mathes, P.G. (June, 2000). Word identification strategies in two early reading intervention models. Paper to be presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Chicago, IL.

Denton, C.A. & Mathes, P.G. (April, 2002). Responding to the "Nonresponders" in Two Early Literacy Interventions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, New York, NY.

Denton, C.A. & Mathes, P.G. (June, 2002). "Slow responders" in early literacy interventions. Invited paper presented at the annual meeting of National Dyslexia Research Foundation, Kona, Hawaii.

Denton, C.A., Mathes, P.G., & Schatschneider, C. (February, 2002). A comparison of measures for the early identification of at-risk readers. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Denton, C.A., Mathes, P.G., Simos, P.G., & Grek, M. (February, 2003). The effects of two early reading interventions on reading achievement and brain activation patterns. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Fletcher, J.M. (April 10, 2001). Reading disabilities: What we know from research. Grawemeyer Symposium Lecture, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

Fletcher, J.M. (April 19, 2001). The brain and reading disabilities. Council for Exceptional Children, Kansas City, MO.

Fletcher, J.M. (May 31, 2001). Prevention of reading disabilities. Society for Prevention Research, Washington DC.

Fletcher, J.M. (August 15, 2001). Classification and definition of dyslexia. Neuropsychiatric Institute, UCLA.

Fletcher, J.M. (October 25, 2001). How successful interventions improve reading behavior and change the brain. Presentation at the International Dyslexia Association 52nd Annual Conference, Albuquerque, NM.

Fletcher, J.M. (November, 14, 2001). Scaling up reading interventions. IERI meeting, Washington DC.

Fletcher, J.M. (May 17, 2002). Neuropsychology of reading disabilities. Midwest Neuropsychology Society, Chicago, IL.

Fletcher, J.M. (June 5, 2002). Scaling up reading interventions. National Dyslexia Research Foundation, Kona, HI.

Fletcher, J.M. (July 5-28, 2002). Neuropsychology of dyslexia. Vivian Smith Advanced Studies Institute, Xylocastro, Greece.

Fletcher, J.M. (November 13-16, 2002). Operationalizing the concept of learning disabilities. 53rd Annual Conference, International Dyslexia Association, Atlanta, GA.

Fletcher, J.M. (November 6, 2003). How children learning to read and why some fail: Integrating research on reading development, instruction, and the brain. Distinguished Lecture, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.

Fletcher, J.M. (March 5, 2004). Alternative approaches to LD: Response to intervention and multi-tiered interventions. Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Fletcher, J.M. (September 16, 2004). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. Tacoma School District, Tacoma, WA.

Fletcher, J.M. (October 8, 2004). Re-envisioning reading and learning disabilities. The HELP Group, Sherman Oaks, CA.

Fletcher, J.M. (October 16, 2004). The brain and reading instruction: Integrating neurobiological and instructional research in public policy. Houston Branch - International Dyslexia Association, Houston, TX.

Fletcher, J.M. (October 19, 2004). Learning disabilities: New approaches to identification and intervention. Detroit Metro Public Schools, Detroit, MI.

Fletcher, J.M. (October 20, 2004). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. Monroe County Public Schools, Monroe, MI.

Fletcher, J.M. (October 29, 2004). Reading research: What we know and how to use it effectively. New Hampshire School Administration Association, Concord, NH.

Fletcher, J.M. (November 3, 2004). Multi-tiered reading instruction: Linking general education and special education. International Dyslexia Association, Philadelphia, PA.

Fletcher, J.M. (November 8, 2004). Re-envisioning learning disabilities: New approaches to identification and intervention. British Columbia Association of School Psychologists, Vancouver British Columbia.

Fletcher, J.M. (November 11, 2004). Rethinking special education: The importance of multi-tiered reading instruction. Region X Education Service Center, Dallas, TX.

Fletcher, J.M. (November 29, 2004). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. Cumberland Public Schools, Cumberland, MD.

Fletcher, J.M. (January 4, 2005). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. Santa Fe Independent School District, Santa Fe, TX.

Fletcher, J.M. (January 11, 2005). Multi-tiered reading instruction: Preventing reading disabilities and reading remediation in older students. West Valley School District, Yakima, WA.

Fletcher, J.M. (January 12, 2005). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. Yakima School District, Yakima, WA.

Fletcher, J.M. (January 21, 2005). Can we cure dyslexia: Update on treating learning disabilities and learning and behavioral outcomes of traumatic brain injury. Masters of Pediatrics, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Fletcher, J.M. (March 2, 2005). Re-authorizing learning disabilities: Response to instruction models for identification. Pennsylvania Association of School Psychologists, Harrisburg, PA.

Fletcher, J.M. (March 29, 2005). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. Concord School District, Concord, NH.

Fletcher, J.M. (April 22, 2005). Re-authorizing learning disabilities: New approaches to identification and intervention. Office of Special Education, Mississippi Department of Education, Jackson, MS.

Fletcher, J.M. (May 13, 2005). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. Mabank Independent School District, Mabank, TX.

Fletcher, J.M. (June 12-14, 2005). Neuropsychology of developmental disabilities. Montana Association of School Psychologists, Billings, MT.

Fletcher, J.M. (June 18, 2005). Neuropsychology of learning disabilities: A contemporary neuropsychological approach. American Academy of Neuropsychology, Minneapolis, MN.

Fletcher, J.M. (June 21, 2005). Re-authorizing learning disabilities: Strategies for prevention and remediation. Midwest Education Leadership Conference, Breckinridge, CO.

Fletcher, J.M. (June 22, 2005). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. OSPI Conference, Wenatchee, WA.

Fletcher, J.M. (August 2, 2005). Re-authorizing learning disabilities: Accounting for better outcomes and multi-tiered reading instruction: Linking general education and special education. Michigan Association of Administrators of Special Education, Tranverse City, MI.

Fletcher, J.M. (August 16-18, 2005). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research. OSPI Conference, Spokane, WA.

Fletcher, J.M. (August 29, 2005). Preventing and remediating reading disabilities: What we know from research and reading disabilities for older students: Remediation is not enough. Merrimack Public Schools, Manchester, NH.

Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., & Griffin, J. (Feb. 9, 2002). Text decodability in beginning reading. Paper presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference (PCRC), La Jolla, CA.

Foorman, B.R., Griffin, J., & Francis, D.J. (April 4, 2002). Text characteristics that influence reading development. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Foorman, B., Perfetti, C.A., Seidenberg, M., Harm, M., & Francis, D. (April 12, 2001). What kind of text is a decodable text? And what kind of text is an authentic text? American Educational Research meeting, Seattle, WA.

Griffin, J., Anthony, J., & Foorman, B.R., Schatschneider, C., & Francis, D. (June 29, 2002). Word decodability as a function of context and repetition. Poster presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Chicago, IL.

Landi, N., Van Dyke, J., Perfetti, C.A., and Foorman, B. (June, 2002). The causes and consequences of predictability. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Chicago IL.

Mathes, P.G. (April, 2002). Treatment resistance in reading: What does It mean? Special strand: Instructional practices improving reading outcomes and Reducing Reading Disabilities. Paper presented at Council for Exceptional Children Annual Convention, New York, NY.

Mathes, P. (April, 2003). Preventing and remediating remedial reading difficulties (Presidential Invited Session). American Educational Research Association Conference, Chicago, IL.

Mathes, P.G., & Denton, C.A. (June, 2002). "Slow-responders" in early literacy Interventions. National Dyslexia Research Foundation Conference, Kona, HI.

Mathes, P., Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J.K. (April 17, 2001). What's next in reading disabilities intervention research: A discussion with leading researchers. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Kansas City, MO.

Torgesen, J.K., Mathes, P. M., & Grek, M. L. (February, 2002). Effectiveness of an early intervention curriculum that is closely coordinated with the regular classroom reading curriculum. Paper presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, San Diego, CA.

Van Dyke, J., Bolger, D.J., Landi, N., Perfetti, C.A. & Foorman, B. (June 1, 2001). Contributions of word decodability and text predictability in first grade oral reading and printed word learning. Presented at the meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Boulder, CO.

Van Dyke, J., Landi, N., Bolger, D.J., & Perfetti, C.A. (June 3, 2001). Decodability as a text factor: Alternative approaches to characterizing word predictability. Presented at the meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Boulder, CO.

ON THE WEB:
For more information about this project, visit the project website at http://cars.uth.tmc.edu/projects/ieri/.