Using Experiments in Scale-Up Research
Given the nested contexts within which student learning occurs, efforts to explain the success or failure of interventions solely with reference to individual-level characteristics may be misdirected. Advanced statistical techniques allow us to develop empirical models that simultaneously capture both individual- and school-level influences on student achievement. A key component of scale-up research becomes developing designs which could be executed in field settings and be generalized to inform educational policy. DRDC research in this area focused on: (1) the design of experiments (or quasi-experiments) to study scale-up; (2) procedures to obtain sample sizes required for minimal power; (3) how design choices affect sample choices; and (4) computing statistical power for multi-level designs of educational. Center investigators have made numerous presentations on these issues, including at a symposium organized for the 2006 Annual Meeting of AAAS titled “Implementation of Clinical Trials and Experimental Research in Science Education.” Related DRDC papers and publications include:
- Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L.V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26: 237-257.
- Petrin, R.A. (2005). Item nonresponse and multiple imputation for multilevel models: An overview of issues and solutions. Data Research and Development Center Working Paper Series. Chicago, Illinois: Data Research and Development Center.
- Petrin, R.A. (2005). Item nonresponse and multiple imputation for multilevel models: Results from a simulation study. Data Research and Development Center Working Paper Series. Chicago, Illinois: Data Research and Development Center.
- Schneider, B., Wyse, A., & Keesler, V. (2007). “Is small really better: Testing some assumptions about school size.” Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 2006/2007, eds. T. Loveless and F. Hess. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
- Hedges, L.V. (2007). Correcting a significance test for clustering. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 32(2): 151-179.
- Hedges, L.V. (2007). Effect sizes in cluster randomized designs. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 32(4): 341-370.
- Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L.V. (2008). How large an effect can we expect from school reforms? Teachers College Record, 110: 1613-1640.
- Hedges, L.V. (in press). Effect sizes in three level designs. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics.
- Hedges, L.V. (in press). What are effect sizes and why do we need them? Developmental Psychology Perspectives.
- Hedges, L.V. (in press). Effect sizes in studies with nested designs. In H. Cooper, L. V. Hedges, and J. Valentine (Eds.). The Handbook of Research Synthesis, 2nd Edition.
- Konstantopoulos, S. (in press). Computing Power of Tests for the Variability of Treatment Effects in Designs with Two Levels of Nesting, Multivariate Behavioral Research.
- Konstantopoulos, S. (in press). The Power of the Test for Treatment Effects in Three-level Cluster Randomized Designs, Journal for Research on Educational Effectiveness.